Dynamic factor demand in the Japanese manufacturing industry
"Purpose – This study investigates the dynamic production structure of the Japanese manufacturing industry by using the adjustment cost approach. The study is to shed some light on the unique dynamic structure of the Japanese manufacturing industry. The study attempts to help design and predict industrial policies that are implemented to enhance domestic investments by the Japanese government.
Design/methodology/approach – This study obtains a system of dynamic factor demand and output supply equations by applying the dual approach to the intertemporal value function as represented by the Hamilton–Jacobi equation. By using industrial panel data for 1973–2012 of the Japanese manufacturing industry, the study estimates the system of the behavioral equations and corresponding elasticities. The study uses hypothesis tests and dynamic elasticities to investigate the dynamic structure of the Japanese manufacturing industry.
Findings – Estimation results show that labor and capital are quasi-fixed variables that adjust about 0.2 percent annually to the long-run optimum levels. Estimated adjustment rates are very slow as often presumed about the Japanese manufacturing industry, which uses lifetime employment practice and slow decisionmaking process in investment decisions. The results also show that output supply and factor demand elasticities vary greatly depending on time horizon. Factor demand increases when its own price increases in the short run, suggesting that factor adjustment is mostly determined factor prices in the past due to sluggish factor adjustment. However, factor demand becomes a normal downward-sloping curve in the long run as factor adjustment gets completed.
Originality/value – Japanese manufacturing firms hire employees through lifetime contract to exploit the benefits of dynamic learning-by-doing and execute investments carefully considering all the possible impacts. Under the strategy, adjustment costs for changing workers and capital stock are minimized. Dynamic adjustment model is expected to shed some light on the unique dynamic structure of the Japanese manufacturing industry. However, researches regarding the dynamic factor adjustment of the Japanese manufacturing industry are hard to find. This study is expected to fill the research vacuum."
Adjustment costs, Dynamic duality, Production, Japanese manufacturing
2020, Journal of Asian Business and Economic Studies
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the technical efficiency in the Jordan insurance market and examine the internal and external determinants that appear to affect the technical efficiency of the insurance companies.
Design/methodology/approach – The study used panel data for 22 insurance companies operating inside Jordan over the period 2000–2016. The author used the data envelopment analysis to evaluate the technical efficiency scores, slacks-based and logit models to examine the efficiency determinants.
Findings – The study found that there is a slight development of technical efficiency for the Jordanian insurance companies during the study period. In addition, there is a substantial efficiency difference among insurance companies each year, and there is a variation at the level of efficiency for each company in each year. The results also showed that owners’ equities are among the most important internal determinants of companies’ efficiency, and there is a significant correlation between type, size and return on assets of the insurer and its efficiency.
Originality/value – This study provides insurance management with relevant indicators that would guide them to make efficient use of the resource base. The period of study also covers the period following the adoption of the insurance law and the issuance of most of the legislation related to the work of insurance companies.