“The International Journal Devoted to the Study and Promotion of Business and Economic Development”


Journal of Asian Business and Economic Studies (JABES) is an international peer-reviewed semi-annual journal addressing development of business and economics. JABES seeks to explore ways of improving the sustainability of business and economics by examining potential solutions to business and economic issues under both theoretical and empirical aspects with the recognition of 'sustainable development' as a process of change involving nations, economies, political alliances, institutions, groups, firms, and individuals into long-term benefits. JABES welcomes papers covering global, regional, national, or even local topics of business and economic development that are of wider policy significance, and of interest to international agencies, governments, public and private sector entities, local communities, non-governmental organizations, and businesses. Policy prescriptions are required to be supported by rigorous analysis and appraisal.



Thank you for choosing to submit your paper to us. These instructions will ensure we have everything required so your paper can move through peer review, production and publication smoothly. Please take the time to read and follow them as closely as possible, as doing so will ensure your paper matches the journal’s requirements.


1.    Before you start

JABES considers all manuscripts on the strict condition that:

¨      The manuscript is your own original work, and does not duplicate any other previously published work, including your own previously published work.

¨      The manuscript has been submitted only to JABES; the manuscript has not been submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.

¨      The manuscript contains nothing that is abusive, defamatory, libelous, obscene, fraudulent, or illegal.

¨      You should carry out a final check of your submission before you send it to JABES for review

¨      JABES operates a double-blind review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor's decision is final.

¨      There is no submission fee for JABES.

¨      There are no page charges for JABES.

¨      JABES is free assess journal for all published papers.


2.   General guidelines

¨     Manuscripts are accepted in English. Any consistent spelling and punctuation styles may be used. Please use single quotation marks, except where ‘a quotation is “within” a quotation’. Long quotations of 40 words or more should be indented without quotation marks.

¨     The submission should be 1.5-spaced, with ample margins, and include a title page with the title of the contribution, name(s) of the author(s) and affiliation(s) as the author(s) would wish them to appear. The full postal address of the author who will check proofs and receive correspondence and offprints should also be included. All pages should be numbered and a total word count supplied.

¨     Manuscripts should be compiled in the following order: title page; abstract; keywords; main text; acknowledgements; references; appendices (as appropriate); table(s) with caption(s) (on individual pages); figure caption(s) (as a list).

¨     There are no strict formatting requirements for main text, but all manuscripts must contain the essential elements in main text needed to convey your manuscript including:

o   Introduction

o   Literature review

o   Methodology

o   Results

o   Conclusions

¨    Papers should be submitted in a form suitable for sending anonymously to re-reviewers (as be required). A reminder that papers should have a minimum of 5,000 words and not exceed approximately 10,000 words, exclusive of References, Endnotes, Figures and Tables, etc.

¨    Invited only Review Articles may be between 8,000 - 15,000 words. These review papers are to be submitted only upon invitation and if an author is interested in submitting a review paper, they can submit an abstract to for a preliminary assessment.

¨    Abstracts of 150-250 words are required for all manuscripts submitted.

¨    Each manuscript should have no more than 6 keywords and JEL codes (Journal of Economic Literature) classification codes included.

¨    Section headings should be concise and numbered sequentially, using a decimal system for subsections.

¨    All authors of a manuscript should include their full names, affiliations, postal addresses, telephone numbers and email addresses on the cover page of the manuscript. One author should be identified as the corresponding author. Please give the affiliation where the research was conducted. If any of the named co-authors moves affiliation during the peer review process, the new affiliation can be given as a footnote. Please note that no changes to affiliation can be made after the manuscript is accepted. Please note that the email address of the corresponding author will normally be displayed in the article PDF (depending on the journal style) and the online article.

¨    All persons who have a reasonable claim to authorship must be named in the manuscript as co-authors; the corresponding author must be authorized by all co-authors to act as an agent on their behalf in all matters pertaining to publication of the manuscript, and the order of names should be agreed by all authors.

¨    Biographical notes on contributors are not required for this journal.

¨    Please supply all details required by any funding and grant-awarding bodies as an Acknowledgement on the title page of the manuscript, in a separate paragraph, as follows:

o    For single agency grants: "This work was supported by the [Funding Agency] under Grant [number xxxx]."

o    For multiple agency grants: "This work was supported by the [Funding Agency 1] under Grant [number xxxx]; [Funding Agency 2] under Grant [number xxxx]; and [Funding Agency 3] under Grant [number xxxx]."

¨      Authors must also incorporate a Disclosure Statement which will acknowledge any financial interest or benefit they have arising from the direct applications of their research.

¨      For all manuscripts non-discriminatory language is mandatory. Sexist or racist terms must not be used.

¨      When using a word which is or is asserted to be a proprietary term or trade mark, authors must use the symbol ® or TM.


3.   More specific guidelines

¨      Font: Times New Roman, 12 points. Use margins of at least 2.5 cm (1 inch).

¨      Number and Date: Arabic numerals should be used for all other numbers (e.g., 14). Dates should be written as follows: April 14, 2010.

¨      Title: Use bold for your article title, with an initial capital letter for any proper nouns.

¨      Authors’ names: Give the names of all contributing authors on the title page exactly as you wish them to appear in the published article.

¨      Affiliations: List the affiliation of each author (department, university, city, country).

¨      Correspondence details: Please provide an institutional email address for the corresponding author. Full postal details are also needed by the publisher, but will not necessarily be published.

¨      Anonymity for peer review: Ensure your identity and that of your co-authors is not revealed in the text of your article or in your manuscript files when submitting the manuscript for review.

¨      Abstract: Indicate the abstract paragraph with a heading or by reducing the font size.

¨      Keywords: Please provide maximum six keywords to help readers find your article.

¨      Headings: Please indicate the level of the section headings in your article:

o    First-level headings (e.g. Introduction, Conclusion) should be in bold, with an initial capital letter for any proper nouns.

o    Second-level headings should be in bold italics, with an initial capital letter for any proper nouns.

o    Third-level headings should be in italics, with an initial capital letter for any proper nouns.

o    Fourth-level headings should also be in italics, at the beginning of a paragraph. The text follows immediately after a full stop (full point) or other punctuation mark.

¨      Tables and figures: Indicate in the text where the tables and figures should appear, for example by inserting [Table 1 near here]. The actual tables and figures should be supplied either at the end of the text or in a separate file as requested by the Editor. Ensure you have permission to use any figures you are reproducing from another source.

¨      Figure captions: Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

¨      References:

o    JABES uses the American Psychological Associations reference style. For details, see the following website: Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged.

o    Data references: This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List. Data references should include the following elements: author name(s), dataset title, data repository, version (where available), year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article.

o    Reference management software: JABES welcomes all most popular reference management software products such as Mendeley and Zotero, but we prefer EndNote. Using the word processor plug-ins from these products, authors only need to select the appropriate APA style when preparing their article, after which citations and bibliographies will be automatically formatted in the journal's style.

¨      Language: Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these).

¨      Supplementary material: If your article includes any Videos and/or other Supplementary material, this should be included in your initial submission for peer review purposes.

¨      Footnotes: footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article.

¨      Research dataJABES encourages and enables you to share data that supports your research publication where appropriate, and enables you to interlink the data with your published articles. Research data refers to the results of observations or experimentation that validate research findings. To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project.

¨      Double-blind review: JABES uses double-blind review, which means the identities of the authors are concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa. To facilitate this, please include the following separately:

o    Title page (with author details): This should include the title, authors' names, affiliations, acknowledgements and any Declaration of Interest statement, and a complete address for the corresponding author including an e-mail address.

o    Blinded manuscript (no author details): The main body of the paper (including the references, figures, tables and any acknowledgements) should not include any identifying information, such as the authors' names or affiliations.

¨      Submission: our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (Word) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

¨      Revised submissions: Regardless of the file format of the original submission, at revision you must provide us with an editable file of the entire article. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. To avoid unnecessary errors, you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.


4.  Before submitting

Ensure that the following items are presented:

One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:

¨    E-mail address

¨    Full postal address

All necessary files have been uploaded: (as least two separated files)
    1. Title page:

o    Include Title of study

o    List of Authors and all information (name, affiliation, email, phone number, address)          

o    Any acknowledgement

    2. Manuscript file (DO NOT PUT any information of author in this file)

o    Include keywords and JEL codes

o    All figures (include relevant captions)

o    All tables (including titles, description, footnotes)

o    Ensure all figure and table citations in the text match the files provided
Graphical Abstracts / Highlights files (where applicable)
Supplemental files (where applicable)

Further considerations

o    Manuscript has been 'spell checked' and 'grammar checked'

o    All references mentioned in the Reference List are cited in the text, and vice versa

o    Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)

o    A competing interests statement is provided, even if the authors have no competing interests to declare

o    Journal policies detailed in this guide have been reviewed

o    Referee suggestions and contact details provided, based on journal requirements


5.   Other guidelines

Ethics in publishing
Please see our information pages on Ethics in publishing

Declaration of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Authors must disclose any interests in two places: 1. A summary declaration of interest statement in the title page file (if double-blind) or the manuscript file (if single-blind). If there are no interests to declare then please state this: 'Declarations of interest: none'. This summary statement will be ultimately published if the article is accepted. 2. Detailed disclosures as part of submission process, which forms part of the journal's official records. It is important for potential interests to be declared in both places and that the information matches.

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint) that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service.

Each author is required to declare his or her individual contribution to the article: all authors must have materially participated in the research and/or article preparation, so roles for all authors should be described. The statement that all authors have approved the final article should be true and included in the disclosure.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.

Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Article transfer service

 JABES has two versions including English and Vietnamese issue that are part of our Article Transfer Policy. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other versions, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of two. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with the need of language translation from you without any reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again.

Upon submission of an article, authors are accepted that the copyright of your article is belonged to JABES.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Writing permission of JABES is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. JABES has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases.

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work.

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.