Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to empirically explore the financial well-being (FWB) of Malaysian households and to construct a subjective FWB index with present and future time perspectives.
Design/methodology/approach - Data were collected from 1,867 respondents across five major regions in Malaysia. Adapting the InCharge Financial Distress/Financial Well-being (IFDFW) Scale by Prawitz et al. (2006) and the method of computing an index by Devlin (2009), this study develops an FWB index using subjective measures that include future time perspectives (retirement). The index was employed to measure the FWB across low-, middle- and high-income groups and socio-demographic characteristics.
Findings - This study finds evidence that Malaysians' FWB is at an average level (46.8). Middle-income households' FWB (46.1) flanks between the financial well-being index (FWBI) levels of the low-income (37.4) and high-income households (58.7). Across age groups, education levels and employment sectors, the FWB of Malaysians significantly varies, although not across different ethnics, religions, zones and residential areas. Overall, the results suggest that the detrimental effects of FWB are perceived by all Malaysian households nationwide regardless of their religion, ethnicity and residential areas.
Practical implications - The results of this study complement the other well-being indices used by policymakers and may serve as a useful input for government and policymakers for them to formulate appropriate strategies to promote higher FWB of Malaysian households based on their socio-demographic characteristics.
Originality/value - This study used primary data and developed a subjective FWB index that leverages on people's perceptions of their own financial well-being while including present and future time perspectives. The main contribution of this paper is to construct an index that is easily interpretable and that complements the existing FWB indices, and to identify the segments of society that have low vis-à-vis high FWB.
Purpose - This study provides in-depth explanation of Goods and Services Tax (GST) fraud prevention towards sustainability business.
Design/methodology/approach - This study applies a qualitative research method, i.e. case study, to address the specific research objective.
Findings - The finding revealed a GST prevention model towards sustainable business. The finding shows that it is pertinent for the government to set preventive strategies in order to retain sustainable income for the government. Two essential dimensions emerged in the findings to support preventive strategies, namely macro- and micro-level measures.
Practical implications - The findings of this study provide managers, investors and policymakers with evidence to what extent GST fraud could be minimize in order to safeguard government source of revenue and retain sustainable business in a country. As GST is an important source of revenue for the government, it is thus crucial to prevent fraud from occurring.
Originality/value - Past studies have primarily focused on GST implementation from the perspective of service tax effectiveness and efficiency. However, this study examined the impact of GST fraud to determine measures that could ensure service tax sustainability using preventive strategies, in turn, introducing to the existing literature on indirect tax.
Purpose - Customer orientation of service employees relates to customer satisfaction and loyalty, sales growth and business performance. Drawing from conservation of resources (COR) theory, the aim of this study was to test the interactive effects of service employees' role clarity and learning goal orientation on customer orientation. Specifically, it was hypothesized that even under conditions of low role clarity, service employees with high learning goal orientation would maintain a high level of customer orientation.
Design/methodology/approach - Participants were 323 employees of 4- and 5-star hotels in Singapore. Using questionnaires, they reported their role clarity, learning goal orientation and customer orientation. For hypothesis testing, moderated regression analysis was performed.
Findings - Role clarity and learning goal orientation were significantly related to customer orientation, and in support of the hypothesis, the interaction effect of role clarity and learning goal orientation was also significant. With high role clarity, all employees showed high customer orientation. But with low role clarity, only employees with high learning goal orientation demonstrated high customer orientation.
Practical implications - The recommendations from this study are to include learning goal orientation as a selection criterion for service employees and to clearly define the roles of existing service employees, especially for those with low learning goal orientation.
Originality/value - The originality and value of this study lies in highlighting the importance of learning goal orientation especially under conditions of low role clarity.
Purpose – This study aims to develop a high-quality impairment loss allowance model in conformity with Indonesian Financial Accounting Standards 71 (PSAK 71) that has significant contribution to national interests and the banking industry.
Design/methodology/approach – The determination of the impairment loss allowance model is settled through 7 stages, using integration of some statistical methods such as Markov chain, exponential smoothing, time series analysis of behavioral inherent trends of probability of default, tail conditional expectation and Monte Carlo simulation.
Findings – The model which is developed by the authors is proven to be a high-quality and reliable model. By using the model, it can be shown that the implementation of the expected credit losses model on Indonesian Financial Accounting Standards 71 is more prudent than the implementation of the incurred loss model on Indonesian Financial Accounting Standards 55.
Research limitations/implications – Determination of defaults was based on days past due, and the analysis in this study did not touch the aspects of hedge accounting in general.
Practical implications – This developed model will contribute significantly to national interests as a source of reference for other banks operating in Indonesia in calculating impairment loss allowance (CKPN) and can be used by the Financial Services Authority of Indonesia (OJK) as a guideline in assessing the formation of impairment loss allowance for banks operating in Indonesia.
Originality/value – As so far there is not yet an available standardized model for calculating impairment loss allowance on the basis of Indonesian Financial Accounting Standards 71, the model developed by the authors will be a new breakthrough in Indonesia.
"Purpose – This study aims to prove the complexity of the relationship between CSR and financial performance (FP) and to decompose the complexity of the relationship using neo-institutional theory.
Design/methodology/approach – This research employs a meta-analysis that integrates 55 various contexts studied between 1998 and 2017 using correlation coefficient as the effect size.
Findings – This study proves that the nature of the relationship between CSR and FP is complex and suggests that the analysis of the relationship between the two variables includes institutional factors to produce generalizable conclusions. Country characteristics, forms and dimensions of CSR, CSR measurements and FP measurements explain the complexity of the relationship between CSR and FP.
Research limitations/implications – Future research is expected to include industry characteristics and the corporate governance model in the analysis of the relationship between CSR and FP. Differences in industry characteristics affect the selection of CSR forms and dimensions, bringing it the potential to influence the relationship between CSR and FP. The corporate governance model adopted by developing countries and developed countries also has the potential to be an institutional factor to influence the relationship between CSR and FP.
Originality/value – This research proves that the complexity of the relationship between CSR and FP is nature given. This research explores the factors causing the complexity of the relationship using neo-institutional theory, which, to the author's knowledge, has not been done by other researchers."