Vietnam has changed from a backward country to a middle-income nation. After the recent financial crisis and economic recession, Vietnam should adjust its fiscal space to accelerate economic transformation and prevent economic shocks. This paper discusses the fiscal space as an instrument for expanding the policy options for the government. By assessing elements and challenges presented in each factors of the four pillars of the FSD model (revenue, ODA, deficit financing, reprioritization and efficiency of public expenditure) we can have an overview on the role fiscal policy in realization of macroeconomic objectives of a country. With this model, we can identify endogenous and exogenous nature of various options in the fiscal space in order to draw policy conclusions.
"Problem: How does e-mail survey with choice-based conjoint questionnaires help Sea Dragon Company make decision in developing the right prototypes of handmade wedding invitation cards?
Purpose: This study applies a market study technique (e-mail survey) and choice-based conjoint analysis to evaluate the potential of nine product prototypes of handmade wedding invitation cards for Sea Dragon Company, a Vietnamese concerns of small size. The result will provide the company with an understanding of customer preferences and help them decide in consideration of the preferred set of attributes on the potential combination of the prototypes and price to become new products.
Method: This research will be focused on the information gathered from the firsthand data by quantitative e-mail survey with choice-based conjoint questionnaire.
Conclusion and Recommendation: Eight out of nine prototypes can be selected as new products while the remained one is recommended to be omitted according to respondents' preference. Customer preference in terms of design, brand and price are recommended to be the guideline for further prototype development. Mall intercept interview is recommended to be implemented after a full collection of wedding card is developed based on the result of this survey. Choice-based conjoint analysis is recommended as a strong tool for market researchers' prototype testing of new products
Until recently, there have been many researches by both Vietnamese nationals and foreigners on solutions to peasants' income, but a scientific basis for these solutions is still lacking, especially a quantitative model of elements of peasants' income. Identifying a quantitative model based on agronomical theories and hard facts is still a challenge to researchers and policy- makers in many countries. To deal with this challenge, we have conducted a research on income of rice-growing peasants in Kampong Cham, Cambodia, with a view to collected facts and data for the model. This paper concentrates on two main issues: a framework of quantitative model and results applied to rice-growing peasants in Cambodia.
"The US financial crisis in 2008 led to an inevitable chance for scholars to review traditional theories of financial crisis in order to find out fundamental causes of the crisis, and issue early warnings to developing countries including Vietnam. Although adjustment to the exchange rate by the SBV in late 2009 is proactive and appropriate to WB and IMF estimates, it also create a need to find out factors that prevent the currency crisis in Vietnam. Moreover, the World Economic Forum 2010 supposed that the 2008 financial crisis entailed the 2009 economic crisis and predicted that some social crisis would take place in 2010 if the world economic recovery was unsustainable.
Theories of currency crisis suggest that economic and institutional variables could be employed in Early Warning Systems (EWS) to predict the currency crisis and work out policies to prevent it on the ground of these economic and institutional indicators. This research is to integrate six economic factors of a model introduced by Berg and Pattillo (1999b) from the IMF (BP) and six institutional factors from Worldwide Governance Indicators (Kaufmann, et al., 2008). In the past, researches on early warnings against the currency crisis usually concentrated on economic factors and ignored institutional ones in their quantitative model. Six economic variables comprise domestic currency overvalued against foreign ones, fall in foreign exchange reserve, fall in export, current account deficit, ratio of short-term foreign debt to foreign exchange reserve, and growth of domestic credit. Six institutional variables are voice and accountability, political stability, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law and control of corruption. The two groups of variables are integrated into the EWS by employing the simple logit model with data source produced by 15 emerging economies over the period 1996-2005. The new finding of the research is that improvement in voice and accountability has significant effect on diminution in danger of currency crisis. In addition, “regulatory quality” produces the same effect but at a lower level. The research also reaffirms prolonged growth of domestic credit, fall in export and current account deficits increases the danger of currency crisis. Finally, our team offers some suggestions on macroeconomic policies with a view to enhancing quality of economic and institutional variables and reducing the danger of currency crisis in Vietnam.