Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify and classify ecotourism service elements according to their instrumentality to customer satisfaction.
Design/methodology/approach – Drawing on the ECOSERV model, the authors conduct further qualitative and quantitative research to find additional dimensions of service quality. Kano’s model and Customer Satisfaction Index are then employed with a sample of 324 ecotourists to categorize these service quality elements.
Findings – A new scale of ecotourism service quality is proposed, with the addition of four dimensions: price-quality, interaction with locals, interaction with other customers and relaxation feelings. The paper also confirms the existence of four groups which are classified according to their level of impacts on satisfaction and dissatisfaction: attractive, one-dimensional, must-be and indifferent.
Originality/value – The paper improves the present ecotourism scale and develops an integrated approach to facilitate effective decision making by identifying areas that require greater attention, thus providing practical benefits for eco-site managers. It also hopes to contribute to better understanding about ecotourism services in the context of an Asia country like Vietnam and encourages further research in this area.
Purpose – The term “agent-based modelling” (ABM) is a buzzword which is widely used in the scientific literature even though it refers to a variety of methodologies implemented in different disciplinary contexts. The numerous works dealing with ABM require a clarification to better understand the lines of thinking paved by this approach in economics. All modelling tasks are a means and a source of knowledge, and this epistemic function can vary depending on the methodology. this paper is to present four major ways (deductive, abductive, metaphorical and phenomenological) of implementing an agent-based framework to describe economic systems. ABM generates numerous debates in economics and opens the room for epistemological questions about the micro-foundations of macroeconomics; before dealing with this issue, the purpose of this paper is to identify the kind of ABM the author can find in economics.
Design/methodology/approach – The profusion of works dealing with ABM requires a clarification to understand better the lines of thinking paved by this approach in economics. This paper offers a conceptual classification outlining the major trends of ABM in economics.
Findings – There are four categories of ABM in economics.
Originality/value – This paper suggests a methodological categorization of ABM works in economics.
Purpose – The innovation of cryptography technique and blockchain has made cryptocurrency an alternative medium of exchange due to its safety, transparency and cost effectiveness. But its main feature cannot be separated from the users who use cryptocurrency for their illegal transactions. There are several arguments related to the legality of cryptocurrency. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the nature of cryptocurrency based on characteristics of money, legal perspective, economic perspective and Sharia perspective.
Design/methodology/approach – In this study, the methodology used is descriptive with a qualitative approach. The object of this research is cryptocurrency. The data are secondary data obtained from peer-reviewed journal articles, conference papers review, working paper and Sharia consultant reports addressing the legality of cryptocurrency. The literature review analysis includes the following steps: material collection, descriptive analysis, discussion with people in Sharia competency and intuitive-subjective material evaluation.
Findings – Regarding the characteristic of money, cryptocurrency is acceptable. But in terms of the legal perspectives, cryptocurrency does not meet the criteria as currency. From the economic perspective, cryptocurrency does not fully meet the characteristic currency due to high price volatility, and from the Sharia perspective, cryptocurrency can be considered property (mal) but not as a monetary value (thamanniyah).
Research limitations/implications – The research findings are based on the journal articles, working paper and Sharia consultant report, and it may lack Sharia’s opinion. Any further discussion related to Sharia perspectives will be a great input to enrich the study.
Practical implications – This study also includes the implications related to the opportunities and the risks of cryptocurrency that can be discussed for the development of the cryptocurrency in the future.
Social implications – This study includes the implication cryptocurrency is using as nature of money and not as speculative instrument.
Originality/value – This study argued the legality of cryptocurrency in four perspectives such as the nature of money, legal, economy and Sharia perspective.
Enrolling in an academic discipline or selecting the college major choice is a dynamic process. Very few studies examine this aspect in India. This paper makes a humble attempt to fill this gap using NSSO 71st round data on social consumption on education. The purpose of this paper is to use multinomial regression model to study the different factors that influence course choice in higher education. The different factors (given the availability of information) considered relate to ability, gender, cost of higher education, socio-economic and geographical location. The results indicate that gender polarization is apparent between humanities and engineering. The predicated probabilities bring out the dichotomy between the choice of courses and levels of living expressed through consumption expenditures in terms of professional and non-professional courses. Predicted probabilities of course choices bring in a clear distinction between south and west regions preferring engineering and other professional courses, whereas north, east and NES prefer humanities.
The present paper follows the same approach as that of Turner and Bowen (1999). The Multinomial regression is specified as , where P (Mi=j) denotes the probability of choosing outcome j, the particular course/major choice that categorizes different disciplines. This response variable is specified with five categories: such as medicine, engineering, other professional courses, science and humanities. The authors’ primary interest is to determine the factors governing an individual’s decision to choose a particular subject field as compared to humanities. In other words, to make the system identifiable in the MLR, humanities is treated as a reference category. The vector Xi includes the set of explanatory variables and βj refers to the corresponding coefficients for each of the outcome j. From an aggregate perspective, the distribution of course choices is an important input to the skill (technical skills) composition of future workforce. In that sense, except humanities, the rest of the courses are technical-intensive courses; hence, humanities is treated as a reference category.
The results indicate that gender polarization is apparent between humanities and engineering. The predicated probabilities bring out the dichotomy between the choice of courses and levels of living expressed through consumption expenditures in terms of professional and non-professional courses. Predicted probabilities of course choices bring in a clear distinction between south and west regions preferring engineering and other professional courses, whereas north, east and NES prefer humanities.
Predicted probabilities of course choices bring in a clear distinction between south and west regions preferring engineering and other professional courses, whereas north, east and NES prefer humanities. This course and regional imbalance need to be worked with multi-pronged strategies of providing both access to education and employment opportunities in other states. But the predicted probabilities of medicine and science remain similar across the board. Very few research studies on the determinants of field choice in higher education prevail in India. Research studies on returns to education by field or course choices hardly exist in India. These evidences are particularly important to know which course choices can support student loans, which can be the future area of work.
The research evidence is particularly important to know which course choices can support student loans, which can be the future area of work, as well as how to address the gender bias in the course choices.
The paper has social implications in terms of giving insights into the course choices of students. These findings bring in implications for practice in their ability to predict the demand for course choices and their share of demand, not only in the labor market but also across regions. India has 36 states/UTs and each state/UT has a huge population size and large geographical areas. The choice of course has state-specific influence because of nature of state economy, society, culture and inherent education systems. Further, within the states, rural and urban variation has also a serious influence on the choice of courses.
The present study is a value addition on three counts. First, the choice of courses includes the recent trends in the preference over market-oriented/technical courses such as medicine, engineering and other professional courses (chartered accountancy and similar courses, courses from Industrial Training Institute, recognized vocational training institute, etc.). The choice of market-oriented courses has been examined in relation to the choice of conventional subjects. Second, the socio-economic background of students plays a significant role in the choice of courses. Third, the present paper uses the latest data on Social Consumption on Education.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and analyze impacts of the monetary policy (MP) – money aggregate and interest rate – on the exchange rate in Vietnam.
Design/methodology/approach – The study uses data over the period of 2008–2018 and applies the vector autoregression model, namely recursive restriction and sign restriction approaches.
Findings – The main empirical findings are as follows: a contraction of the money aggregate significantly leads to the real effective exchange rate (REER) depreciating and then appreciating; a tightening of the interest rate immediately causes the REER appreciating and then depreciating; and both the money aggregate and the interest rate strongly determine fluctuations of the REER.
Originality/value – The quantitative results imply that the MP affects the REER considerably.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to thoroughly investigate the interplay between institutions, foreign direct investment (FDI) and entrepreneurship in the context of emerging markets (EMs).
Design/methodology/approach – The authors argue that the impact of FDI on entrepreneurial activity depends on different natures of capital flow and entrepreneurial motivation and relates to the quality of institutional environment. First, the roles of inward and outward FDI are examined in connection with the new firm creation by opportunity- and necessity-motivated entrepreneurs. Second, the integrated influences of (inward/outward) FDI and governance quality (GQ) on (opportunity/necessity) entrepreneurship are tested. This nexus of relationships is analyzed through segmented regressions using the GEM data of 39 EMs over the 2004–2015 period.
Findings – It is evidenced that the quality of governance infrastructure affects the relationship between FDI and entrepreneurship: in emerging countries with low GQ, opportunity entrepreneurship is stimulated by inward FDI and diminished by outward FDI; and in emerging countries with high GQ, necessity entrepreneurship is discouraged by inward FDI and promoted by outward FDI.
Practical implications – This research has implications for the institutional context-based execution of public policy in emerging economies. As the entrepreneurial effects of inward and outward FDI are pronounced differently under the two types of entrepreneurship and the two extremes of GQ, public policy makers who recognize the catalytic role of FDI in domestic business development should take the distinct institutional context of their country into consideration.
Originality/value – The paper contributes to the extant literature on international entrepreneurship in emerging economies by making a breakdown on the roles played by different types of FDI in the entrepreneurial activity, analyzing the mediating effects of GQ on the relationship between inward/outward FDI and entrepreneurship, and interpreting the capital and institutional determinants of entrepreneurship in terms of entrepreneurial motivations by opportunity and necessity.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the simultaneous relationships among transformational leadership (TFL), customer citizenship behavior (CCB), employee intrinsic motivation (IM) and employee creativity (EC).
This study was conducted in companies (hotels and tour operators) from the hospitality sector in Vietnam. The respondents were selected based on convenience sampling. A cross-sectional survey design and questionnaire method was used for data collection.
The results of the empirical analysis suggest that: employee IM is significantly associated with EC, both TFL and CCB are positively related to employee IM and EC and employee IM positively mediates the effects of both TFL and CCB on EC.
The results may help managers focus on TFL behavior, CCB and employee IM to achieve higher EC.
This investigation is expected to be new and valuable. Research on relationships of CCB, employee IM and EC is of significant importance but has not been examined to date. It is hoped that this study addresses this important gap in the marketing literature.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between dividend policy and earnings quality of Vietnamese listed firms.
The sample includes firms listed on Vietnam stock exchange during the period between 2010 and 2016. Two measures of earnings quality are the annual firm-specific absolute value of residuals from Dechow and Dichev’s (2002) model and from Dechow and Dichev (2002) as modified by McNichols’s (2002) model. The firms’ dividend policy is captured by dividend paying status. This is a dummy variable that takes the value of 1 if the firm pays dividends and 0 otherwise. In addition, dividend yield and dividend payout ratio, which are continuous variables, are also used in this paper as alternative proxies for dividend policy.
Using panel data analysis, this paper documents that dividend payers have higher earnings quality than dividend non-payers. Dividends are an indicator of earnings quality. These findings are consistent with prior studies. After controlling for variables that may be related to earnings quality as well as for the year and industry fixed effects, this relation remains unchanged. In addition, this result is also robust after controlling for firm fixed effects.
This paper offers the empirical evidence on the relation between dividend policy and earnings quality in Vietnam, which is a frontier market.