The relationship between tourism development and economic development has been long determined and measured. This paper primarily aims to measure this relationship in ASEAN countries in the 2001-2009 period. The result indicates that tourism development has a positive effect on economic development, specifically increasing per capita income. Countries with high urbanization levels show even stronger impacts of tourism on per capita income. The structural changes in ASEAN economies to industry and services has not only helped attain high economic growth, but also contributed to improving personal income
This paper aims to provide empirical evidence of Vietnam?s public debt threshold. The data of the annual country's public debt in the 1990 - 2010 period, the threshold model by Hansen (1996, 2000),
and the OLS estimation method are employed to test threshold effects and estimate the value of the public debt threshold. The research reveals that Vietnam's public debt threshold is 75.8% of GDP. This finding does not imply that the government should target public debt at this level because it can never know when an unusual shock will happen. Therefore, it is advisable to keep the public debt below this threshold. The detection of the public debt threshold helps the government focus better on control of public debt sustainability.
E-commerce is at the beginning stage in Vietnam that creates not only opportunities but also challenges for Vietnamese e-retailers. To be successful in the new trading channel, e-retailers need to understand customer attitude toward their online stores. The purpose of this study is to investigate how online shoppers perceive effects of key factors of an e-store on their satisfaction which leads to their commitment to the e-store. The study framework utilizes quantitative technique. A survey of 204 online shoppers via the Internet has been conducted. Regression analysis is used to test the hypothesis derived from the framework. The major quality factors of an e-store are defined as site design, trust and interactivity, which considerably influence customer satisfaction. Once customers satisfy with the dominant characteristics of the e-store they tend to revisit and buy things via the site. The results imply that e-retailers should continuously improve their e-store interface in terms of aesthetics and usability. They should build customer?s trust on the site transactions and give opportunities for customers to frequently interact to e-store to meet their specific needs and then increase their loyalty.
Although the brand-customer relationship (BCR) is a special form in the theory of relationship marketing, there is only a few of researches that discriminate various brand-consumer relationships. This paper aims at classifying BCRs according to two basic approaches: (1) the unilateral relationship creating an emotional bond; and (2) the truly bilateral relationship in which a social bond is formed through a proactive interaction between two relationship partners based on transactional and social interactions. Research results point out shortcomings of the current approach to brand relationship and hope that social bond may lead to various outcomes of the relationships such as commitment, share of goals and values and self expression that surpass the simple brand loyalty.
After 30 years of sending laborers to work abroad and especially 20 years of operating under the market mechanism, Vietnam has made significant progress in its labor export such as expansion of labor-employing markets, and substantial rise in labor market shares and efficiency. However, Vietnamese labor export is facing big challenges both locally and internationally, which requires the country to strengthen its management of labor export as well as learn from the experience of other countries.
Ecotourism has witnessed the fastest growth among other types of tourism, and recently been generating substantial revenues for many countries. Although ecotourism has great potentials, it may not necessarily be a mode of sustainable tourism because it can be objected by local communities. As per this fact, a so-called community-based ecotourism has been developed. The present paper aims to synthesize experiences of developing community-based ecotourism in some countries, analyze the operation of ecotourism in the North Central Vietnam (henceforth called NCV),
and then extend some solutions to the sustainable development of the community-based ecotourism in NCV.